Johanson & Edgar

[25des12Sl vbm]

















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[1-1-11St vbm]
Guna gigi: teeth are extremely informative about the age, sex, diet, health and taxonomic identity of extinct hominids.

Insight into the diet of early hominid can be gleaned (melihat) from:
(1) The shape of cusp
(2) The relative size of the teeth
(3) The enamel thickness
(4) Dental wear
*/ Thick enamel akan memperpanjang usia gigi berhubungan dg makanan yang keras/liat (low-quality food). Contoh ekstrem: A.robustus (OH-5).

*/ Disease or poor nutrition of teeth can promote an interruption in dental development that is manifested as pits or grooves on the enamels surface –>HYPOPLASIA

*/ The thickness of dental enamel
1) African ape have thin dental enamel –>ape may have had opportunity to evolve a thin enamel
2) Hominid have thick dental enamel –>primitive condition
3) A.anamensis mempunyai enamel yang tebal
4) Ardipithecus ramidus mempunyai enamel yang tipis

p.91
Diet
Ada mahl yg bersifat insectifora (pemakan serangga), carnivore (pemakan daging), herbifora (pemakan rumput2an; kuda, sapi), omnifora (pemakan segala), folivore (makan dedaunan; gorila), frugivore (makan buah2an).

Adakah sifat2 tsb tercerminkan pd ukuran badannya?
Body size bears a relationship to dietary preference (pilihan)
1) Pemakan serangga (insectivora): krn tubuhnya kecil & dia memerlukan energy yg besar (hrs gesit) unt menangkap makanannya maka dia memp high metabolic rate
2) Folivores (leaf earter, misalnya GORILA): tubuhnya besar tetapi dia tdk memerlukan energy yg besar yg dipakai unt mencari makanan maka dia memp lower metabolic rates
3) Frugivores (fruit eater): sama spt folivore ttp volume otaknya relative lebih besar. Ini dikarenakan mrk hrs mampu berfikir dmn sj sumber buah2an tsb (krn buah2an bersifat musiman & keberadaannya tersebar)
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[1-1-13Sl vbm]
SK-48 (A.robustus) [24may07K vbm]
? Specimen: Adult cranium
? Locality: Swartkrans, South Africa
? Age: 1.5-2 mya
? Discoverers: Fourie
? Date: 30 June 1950
? Publication: Broom, R., J.T.Robinson. 1952. Swartkrans apeman, Paranthropus crassidens. Trans.Mus. Mem., no.6

UM1
BL mesial cusps < BL distal cusp krn ukuran hypocone yg besar
Metacone < hypocone
Metacone  paracone
Protocone  hypocone  paracone & metacone
Bentuk square
Critsa oblique: 2 –> interrupted by the main longitudinal fissure
CT: 0

UM2
BL mesial cusps > BL distal cusp
Metacone < hypocone
Metacone < paracone
Paracone  hypocone
Protocone  paracone & hypocone  metacone
Bentuk square
Critsa oblique: 3 –>no crista oblique; the lingual ridge of the metacone & the distobuccal ridge of the protocone have not developed more strongly than the adjacent ridges on the protocone & paracone (menurut uing 2)
CT: 0

UM3
Critsa oblique: 3 –>no crista oblique; the lingual ridge of the metacone & the distobuccal ridge of the protocone have not developed more strongly than the adjacent ridges on the protocone & paracone
CT: 0
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Defining human species [3jan13R vbm]
Since the time of Linnaeus, in the mid-eighteenth century, species, the lowest category in the Linnaean hierarchy of organisms, have been known as the basic unit of biological classification. The prevailing view during Linnaeus’s time was that species were fixed, in changing types that had been created through divine interpretation. Darwin thinking of the following century, by contrast, emphasized “descent w/ modification” species were not static but dynamic they changed & they came & went. In the late twentieth century further definitions of species have appeared [p.52]

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