Stanford dkk



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[17agt12J 29ram1433H]
Def HSS berdasarkan anatomi & behavior
^^ Modern human origins are not simply a matter of anatomy but also of behaviour (standford et.al. 2006:418)

Nean termasuk archaic H.s bukan H.s.s
^^ No matter how cognitively [yg berhub dg pengertian] sophisticated our close cousins the Nean or archaic H.s were or how close the size of their brains was to our own, they clearly did not attain [mencapai, mendptkan] a modern level of technological or intellectual achievement (Stanford et.al. 2006:418)

Kekhasan budaya Hss adl BEAD
^^ The bead ~~ it provides material evidence of personal decoration & symbolic representation. Such evidence is abundant in the archaeological record of modern humans & all but absent from the record of Nean & archaic Hs (Stanford et.al. 2006:418)

Beda teknologi batu Lower & Mid Paleolitik
^^ Between 2.5 Mya & 300 Kya, the pace [kecepatan, langkah] of change in stoone tool cultures (the Lower Paleolithic or Early Stone Age) was very slow, with the advent of the Mid Paleolithic or Middle Stone Age (MSA) many new tool types & techniques were introduced (Ambrose 2001). However, little change took place during the MSA itself: the same tool types existed at the beginning of the MSA as at the end (Standford et.al. 2006:419)

Perubahan symbolic thinking (art & ornamentation) pd UP: GRADUAL or ABRUPTLY
^^ The rapid pace [kec] of change & the appearance of symbolic behavior are two of the hallmarks [tanda] of the UP revolution, which some scientists think occurred w/ the sudden appearance of anatomically modern humans (Klein & Edgar 2002). Other scientists think that different times during the later MSA, thus indicatig a more gradual evolution of behaviorally modern humans (McBrearty & Brooks 2000) (Standford dkk 2006:420)

[16nov12J vbm] Dari segi perilaku kekhasan perilaku manusia modern (Hss) dibandingankan dg Nean ataupun archaic Hs adl kebiasaan memakai BEAD. Bead adl termasuk symbolic behavior yg mulai muncul pd jaman UP (upper paleolitik) (Stanford et.al. 2006:418,420) [lihat http://www.world-archaeology.com/news/shell-beads-from-blombos-cave-south-africa/ & http://www.world-archaeology.com/news/abu-dhabi-oldest-skeleton/%5D. Fenomena ini memunculkan 2 pendapat bhw karakter/kebiasaan Hss ini muncul dg tiba2 yg artix Hss muncul dg tiba2 tanpa adanya proses evolusi (pendapat dr Klein & Edgar 2002) sedangkan pendapat lainnya munculx HSS terjd secara evolusi yg dimulai sejak later MSA (McBrearty & Brooks 2000) (Standford dkk 2006:420). Perbedaan dlm teknologi alat batu antara jaman LP (lower paleolitik) dg MP (middle paleolitik) adal alat batu pd jaman LP sangat sederhana dibandingkan alat batu jaman MP (Stanford et.al. 2006:419).

Persamaan ant hipotes REPLACEMENT & MULTIREGIONAL
^^ ~~ both framework agree that there was an initial dispersal of H.erectus (or H.ergaster) from Africa into the rest of the old world. However, they disgaree as to what happened next (stanford dkk 2006:420)
[14sept12J vbm] Baik konsep out of africa maupun multiregional setuju bhw ada penyebaran awal H.erectus (atau H.ergaster) dari Afrika ke seluruh dunia khususx ke “old world”. Namun, mereka berbeda pendapat dengan apa yang terjadi selanjutnya

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[17nov12St vbm]
p.37
WHAT IS ID?
Intelegent design is a recent attempt to repackage creationist ideas in a way that might be more palatable for society & the scientific communinity [Intelegent desain adalah upaya baru untuk membungkus kembali ide kreasionis dengan cara yang mungkin lebih cocok bagi masyarakat umum & ilmiah]

Instead of arguing outright for a biblical or divine basis for life, intelligent design advocates claim they have evidence that evolution by natural selection cannot fully explain the diversity of form & function that exists in nature [Alih-alih berdebat langsung untuk Alkitab, pendukung ID mengklaim mereka memiliki bukti bahwa evolusi oleh seleksi alamiah tidak dapat sepenuhnya menjelaskan keragaman bentuk & fungsi yang ada di alam]

This school of thought is fond of using the argument of “irreducible complexity”: There are aspects of the design of some organisms that are so complex that gradual, successive small modifications of earlier forms could not have produced them [Aliran pemikiran ini adalah gemar menggunakan argumen “kerumitan yang tak tersederhanakan”: Ada aspek desain dari beberapa organisme yang sangat kompleks bhw modifikasi yang bertahap dr bnt yg sederhana tidak bisa menghslkan bnt yg komplek]

If removal of one part of an organism’s adaptive of traits causes the entire complex to cease functioning, advocates of ID say, then a supranatural force must have been the actual creator. The example of a mousetrap is often cited. Without each essential feature of a mousetrap -the wooden platform, the spring mechanism & the latch holding it- the device fails to function at all. ID advocates say that unless the trap were assembled all at once, it would be useless & therefore could not be created by natural selection. Michael Behe, a biologist & an influential advocate of ID who seeks to reconcile evolution with religious faith, has claimed that there are examples of irreducible complexity in biology that make natural selection an inadequate mechanism for all change. For instance, Behe claims that the working of cells at the biochemical level, in which cellular function can occur only after numerous working integrated parts are in place, might be an example of irreducible complexity (Behe 1996). Unfortunately for adherents of ID, their few examples of irreducible complexity have been met with refutations in the scientific literature. Behe himself acknowledges that whereas gradual,Darwinian change by natural selection can be studied & tested using the scientific method, ID cannot. By definition, if the original designs is supranatural, understanding this design must be beyond the reach of science or rational explanation. In other words, ID movement asks us to accept on blind faith that supernatural forces are at work in designing in designing life. Rather than offering rational explanations for features that might challenge Darwinian theory, advocates of ID offer criticisms that cannot be addressed by further research. The whole belief system of ID therefore stands well outside of science in the realm of faith rather than offering a scientific alternative to evolution by natural selection.

As the latest addition to the beliefs of the creationist movement, ID is unlikely to go away any time soon. Indeed, because it is an intellectual, if not scientific, approach to evolutionary change, it is held by some academics, including university-level science
instructors. Because instructors in universities can cite the legal right of academic freedom, the teaching of ID belief, even though it lies outside the sciences, is hard to prevent.

Jika penghapusan satu bagian dari organism’s adaptive of traits menyebabkan seluruh kompleks untuk berhenti berfungsi, pendukung ID mengatakan, maka kekuatan supranatural pasti pencipta yang sebenarnya. Itu contoh perangkap tikus sering dikutip. Tanpa setiap fitur penting dari suatu perangkap tikus-kayu, per & kait pemegang-perangkap tkus tsb gagal berfungsi sama sekali. Pendukung ID mengatakan bhw jika semua fitur itu hadir sekaligus maka perangkap tsb bisa berfungsi. Tetapi hal tsb (yi kehadiran semua fitur) tdk bs dibuat oleh seleksi alamiah. Michael Behe, seorang ahli biologi & penyokong ID berusaha menyatukan evolusi dan keyakinan agamaa Dia mengatakan bhw ada contoh kompleksitas tereduksi dalam biologi yang membuat mekanisme seleksi alam tidak memadai untuk semua perubahan. Misalnya, Behe menyatakan bahwa kerja sel-sel di level biokimia, dmn fungsi sel dapat terjadi hanya setelah banyak bagian terpadu bekerja berada di tempat, mungkin contoh kerumitan yang tak tersederhanakan (Behe 1996)

Sayangnya untuk penganut ID, beberapa contoh kerumitan yang tak tersederhanakan telah bertemu dengan bantahan-bantahan dalam literatur ilmiah. Behe sendiri mengakui bahwa walaupun bertahap, perubahan Darwin melalui seleksi alam dapat dipelajari & diuji dengan menggunakan metode ilmiah,sedangkan ID tidak bisa. Menurut definisi, jika desain asli adl supranatural, memahami desain ini harus berada di luar jangkauan ilmu pengetahuan atau penjelasan rasional. Dengan kata lain, gerakan ID meminta kita untuk menerima pada iman buta bahwa kekuatan gaib sedang bekerja dalam merancang kehidupan. Daripada menawarkan penjelasan yg rasional untuk menantang teori Darwin, para pendukung ID menawarkan kritik yang tidak dapat ditangani oleh penelitian lebih lanjut. Krn sistem kepercayaan seluruh ID berdiri di luar ilmu pengetahuan tdk dpt menawarkan alternatif ilmiah untuk evolusi oleh seleksi alam.

Sebagai/dengan tambahan terbaru dr kepercayaan gerakan kreasionis, ID tidak mungkin untuk pergi/hilang dalam waktu dekat. Memang, karena ID merupakan atu bersifat, intelektual (bukan bersifat ilmiah), pendekatan untuk perubahan evolusioner, itu diadakan oleh beberapa akademisi, termasuk oleh dosen2. Karena dosen di universitas dapat menyebutkan hak hukum kebebasan akademik, pengajaran keyakinan ID, meskipun terletak di luar ilmu, sulit untuk dicegah.
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[19nov12Sn vbm]
p.35
THE SCIE & CREATIONISM QUESTION
Ever since the publication of On the Origin of Species, a small but vocal minority in the US (& other countries) have argued againts the teaching of the principles evolution. They argued instead for a biblical, creationist view of the origin of species & of humanity. But what exactly is a creationist? A scientist who studies the origins of the known universe but who believes that the universe may have been created 14 billions ya by a single supernatural force is a creationist [Sejak publikasi “On the Origin of Species”, sbgan ilmuwan di AS (& negara-negara lain) menolak pengajaran prisnsip evolusi. Mereka berpendapat menurut Alkitab kreasionis yg menciptkan spesies & kemanusiaan. Tapi apa sebenarnya kreasionis itu? Seorang ilmuwan yang mempelajari asal-usul alam semesta yang percaya bahwa alam semesta mungkin telah dibuat 14 miliar thyl oleh kekuatan supranatural tunggal adalah penciptaan]
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[24nov12J lab mikro]




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