Masing2 kelompok manusia di bumi ini mempunyai perjalanan sejarah yang ber-beda2.
Dalam rentang waktu mulai dari berakhirx jaman es yg terakhir, kira-kira 13000 th yl, sampai dengan sekarang ada beberapa tempat di bumi ini dmn kelompok masyarakatnya sdh lebih beradab dari yg lainnya dmn mrk sdh mampu mengembangkan teknologi pembuatan perkakas dari besi, sementara itu ditempat yg lainnya masyrakatnya masih tetap bercokol menggunakan perkakas dari batu dan hidup secara nomad dg berburu & memungut & ditempat lainnya ada masyrakat yg sdh mulai mengembangkan sistim pertanian. Those historical inequalities have cast long shadows on the modern world, karena masyarakat melek huruf yang dicirikan dengan kemampuan membuat perkakas logam telah menaklukan/membasmi masyarakat tdk melek huruf. This puzzling question of their origins was posed to me 25 ya in a simple, personal form.Pd bln Juli 1972, sy berjln disepanjang
salah satu pantai di New Guinea. Sbg seorg ahli biologi sy sdg mempelajari evolusi burung2 dikawasan tropis. Pd saat itu sy sdh mendengar nama seorg politisi dari New Guinea yaitu YALI who was touring the distric then. Pd waktu itu, secara kebetulan, sy & Yali sedang berjln dlm arah yg sama & kmd dia mendekati sy & kamipun berjln bersama sambil mengobrol sepanjang perjlnan. Yali radiated charisma & energy. His eyes flashed in a mesmerizing way. Dia sangat PD sekali ketika berbica ttg dirix tetapi dia jg banyak tanya ttg persoalan2 & listened intently. Percakapan kami dimulai dg topik ~~
[29agt12R lab mikropal]
# Untuk membandingkan perkembangan dlm masa sejarah yang terjadi dibeberapa tempat di bumi ini dimulai sejak waktu sekitar 11000 SM. Waktu ini bertepatan dg dimulainya manusia membentuk (per)kampung-an dibeberap tempat di bumi ini, dg dihuninya benua Amerika oleh manusia dan waktu ini berada dalam rentangan waktu Plestosen Akhir yang bertepatan dengan jaman es yang terakhir atau (dalam istilah geologi) jaman Resen. Dalam rentangan waktu ini (mungkin sebelum 11.000SM) mulai muncul tanaman & hewan peliharaan dibeberapa tempat di bumi ini. Jika demikian tentunya ada tempat2 di bumi ini kebudayaan manusia lebih maju disatu tempat dibandingkan tempat lainx. Jadi, mungkin waktu yang dianggap tepat unt memulai perbandingan tsb adalah dimulai dr skg dan mundur kebelakang dalam rentangan 13000th provide the answer to Yali’s question. Oleh lrn itu bab ini akan membahas secara ringkas/cepat (whirlwind) sejarah manusia disetiap benua dimulai sejak munculnya manusia hingga 13000 sebelum sekarang (BP) (11050SM) xxxxxxxxxxxx
compare wolves, the wild ancestors of domestic dogs, with many breeds of dogs. Some dogs are much bigger than wolves (Great Adnes), while others are much smaller (Pekingese). Some are slimmer & built for racing (greyhounds), while others are short-legged & useless for racing (dachshunds). They vary enormously in hair form & color & some are even hairless. Polynesians & Aztecs developed dog breeds specifically raised for food. Comparing a dachshund with a wolf, you wouldn’t even suspect that the former had been derived from the latter if you didn’t already know it.
The wild ancestors of the ancient 14 were spread unevenly over the globe. South America had only one such ancestor, which gave rise to the llama & alpaca. North America, Australia & sub-Saharan Africa had none at all. The lack of domestic mammals indigenous to sub-Saharan Africa is especially astonishing, since a main reason why tourists visit Africa today is to see its abundant & diverse wild mammals. In contrast, the wild ancestors of the 13 of the ancient 14 (including all of the major 5) were confined to Eurasia. (As elsewhere in this book, my use of the term “Eurasia” includes in several cases North Africa, which biogeographically & in many aspects of human culture is more closely related to Eurasia than to sub-Saharan Africa).
Of course, not all 13 of these wild ancestral species occurred together throughout Eurasia. No area had all 13 & some of the wild ancestors were quite local, such as the yak, confined in the wild to Tibet & adjacent highland areas. However, many parts of Eurasia did have quite a few of these 13 species living together in the same area: for example, seven of the wild ancestors occurred in Southwest Asia.
This very unequal distribution of the wild ancestral species among the continents became an important reason why Eurasians, rather than peoples of other continents, were the ones to end up with guns, germs & steel. [19sept12R vbm] How can we explain the concentration of the ancient fourteen in Eurasia?
One reason is simple. Eurasia has the largest number of big terrestrial wild mammal species, whether or not ancestral to a domesticated species. Let’s define a “candidate for domestication” as any terrestrial herbivorous or omnivorous mammal species (one not predominantly a carnivore) weighing on the average over 100 pounds (45kg). Tab 9.2 shows that Eurasia has the most candidates, 72 species, just as it has the most species in many other plant & animal groups. That’s because Eurasia is the world’s largest landmass & it’s also very diverse ecologically, with habitats ranging from extensive tropical rain forests, through temperate forests, deserts & marshes, to equally extensive tundras. Sub-Saharan Africa has fewer candidates, 51 species, just as it has fewer species in most other plant & animal groups-because it’s smaller & ecologically less diverse than Eurasia. Africa has smaller areas of tropical rain forest than does SE.Asia & no temperate habitats at all beyond latitude 37 degrees. As I discussed in Chap-1, the Americas may formerly have had almost as many candidates as Africa, but most of America’s big wild mammals (including its horses, most of its camels & other species likely to have been domesticated had they survived) became extinct about 13000 ya. Australia, the smallest & most isolated continent, has always had far fewer species of big wild mammals than has Eurasia, Africa, or the Americas. Just as in the Americas, in Australia all of those few candidates except the red kangaroo became extinct around the time of the continent’s first colonization by humans.
[19sept12R vbm] Salah satu alasan adl Eurasia adl benua yg memiliki jumlah spesies mamalia darat liar yg terbesar. Apakah mrk itu nenek moyang dp spesies yg dijinakan? Spesies yg dijinakan, baik itu mamalia herbivora maupun omnivora berat rata-rata adl 45kg. Dari Tab-9.2 dpt dilihat bhw di Eurasia banyak terdpt mamalia yg dijinakan; ada sebanyak 72 spesies.
Eurasia adalah daratan terbesar di dunia & ekologinya sangat beragam mulai dari hutan hujan tropis, hutan beriklim sedang, padang pasir hingga rawa2 & tundra.
Sub-Sahara Afrika memiliki sedikit species mamalia jinak yaitu hanya 51 spesies & oleh krn itu ekologinya kurang bervariasi dibandingkan SE.Asia. SElain itu Afrika juga mempunyai sedikit hutan hujan tropis dibandingkan SE.Asia & tdk memiliki hutan beriklim sedang, terutama di atas lintang 37 drajat.
Seperti yang telah sy bahas dalam Bab-1, Amerika sebelumnya mungkin memiliki jumlah mamalia jinak sama seperti Afrika, tetapi sebagian besar mamalia liar berukuran besar di Amerika telah punah sekitar 13000 th yl. Australia sebagia benua yg terkecil & posisix terisolasi, memiliki spesies mamalia liar yg lebih sedikit dibandingkan Eurasia, Afrika, atau Amerika. Sama seperti di Amerika, di Australia semua mamalia liar tsb (kecuali kanguru merah) punah bertepatan dg waktu pendudukan pertama benua Australia oleh manusia.
The failures of modern efforts provide a final type of evidence that past failures to domesticate the large residue of wild candidate species arose from shortcomings of those species, rather than from shortcomings of ancient humans.
Kegagalan unt menjinakan hewan2 liar bukan disebabkan oleh jml populasi mns purba yg sedikit ttp disebabkan oleh sedikitx species hewan liar yg ada pd saat itu.
Table 9.3: Approximate dates of first attested evidence for domestication of large mammal species. For the other 4 domesticated large mammal species -reindeer, yak, gaur & banteng- there is as yet little evidence concerning the date of domestication. Dates & places shown are merely the earliest one attested to date; domestication may actually have begun earlier & at a different location.
Tabel 9.3: Perkiraan waktu munculx hewan2 yg dipelihara mns purba. Unt hewan lainx spt rusa, yak, gaur & banteng belum ada bukti yg jelas kpn hewan2 tsb mulai dipelihara org. Waktu & tempat pd tabel 9.3 hanyalah berdasarkan bukti yg ada akan tetapi tampaknya ada kemungkinan hewan2 tsb sdh mulai dipelihara org lebih awal lg ditempat lain.
With the occupation of the Chatham islands off New Zealand around AD 1400, barely a century before European “explorers” entered the Pacific, the task of exploring the Pacific was finally completed by Asians. Their tradition of exploration, lasting tens of thousands of years, had begun when Wiwor’s ancestors spread through Indonesia to New Guinea & Australia. It ended only when it had run out of targets & almost every habitable Pacific island had been occupied.
To anyone interested in world history, human societies of East Asia & the Pacific are instructive, because they provide so many examples of how environments molds history. depending on their geographic homeland, East Asian & Pacific peoples differed in their access to domesticable wild plant & animal species & in their connectedness to
other peoples. Again & again, people with access to the prequisites for food production, and with a location favoring diffusion of technology from elsewhere, replaced peoples lacking these adventages. Again & again, when a single wave of colonists spread out over diverse environments, their descendants developed in separate ways, depending on those environmental differences.
For instance, we have seen that South Chinese developed indigenous food production & technology, received writing & still more technology & political structures from North China, & went on to colonize tropical SE.Asia & Taiwan, largely replacing the former
inhabitants of those areas. Within SE.Asia, among the descendants or
relatives of those food-producing South Chinese colonists, the Yumbri in the mountain rain forests of northeastern Thailand & Laos reverted to living as hunter-gatherers, while the Yumbri’s close relatives the Vietnamese (speaking a language in the same sub-subfamiliy of Austroasiatic as the Yumbri language) remained food producers in the rich Red Delta & established a vast metal-based empire. Similarly, among Austronesian emigrants farmers from Taiwan & Indonesia, the Punan in the rain forests of Borneo were forced to turn back to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle, while
their relatives living on Java’s rich volcanic soils remained food producers, founded a kingdom under the influence of India, adopted writing & built the great Buddhist monument at Borobudur. The
Austronesians who went on to colonize Polynesia became isolated from East Asian metallurgy & writing & hence remained without writing or metal. As we saw in Chp 2, though, Polynesian political & social organization & economies underwent great diversification in different environments.
Spacious skies and tilted axes
On the map of the world on page 177 (fig 10.1) compare the shapes & orientations of the continents. You will be struck by obvious difference. The Americans span a much greater distance north-south (9000 miles) than east-west; only 3000 miles at the widest, narrowing to a mere 40 miles at the Isthmus of Panama. That is, the major axis of the Americas is north-south. The same is also true, though to a less extreme degree, for Africa. In contrast, the major axis of Eurasia is east-west. What effect, if any, did those differences in the orientation of the continents’ axes have on human history?
This chapter will be about what I see as their enormous, sometimes tragic, consequences. Axis orientations affected the rate of spread of crops & livestock, & possibly also of writing, wheels, & other inventions. That basic feature of geography thereby contributed heavily to the very different experiences of Native Americans, Africans & Eurasians in the last 500 years.
Food production’s spread proves as crucial to understanding geographic differences in the rise of guns, germs & steel as did its origins, which we considered in the preceding chapters. That’s because, as we saw in ch 5, there were no more than nine areas of the globe, perhaps as few as five, where food production arose independently.