Environmental Scie

CONTENTS (11-8-15Sl vbm)
I. Basic Issues in Environmental Sciences (11-81-5Sl vbm)
Case Study: shrimp, mangroves & pickup trucks [truk pengangkut]
1.1 Key Themes
Human population problem
Sustainability
A global perspective
An urban world
Science & values

1.2 Human population growth
The John Eli Miller family
The population bomb
African famines

A closer look 1.1: the Black death

1.3 Sustainability & carrying capacity
Defining sustainability
Carrying capacity of the earth

A closer look 1.2: carrying capacity of the chinook salmon

1.4 A global perspective
1.5 An urban world
1.6 Values & science
Placing a value on the environment

Summary
Critical thinking issue: how can we preserve the world’s coral reef?
Reexamining themes & issues
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VIII. Biogeography (11-8-15Sl vbm)
Case study: invasion of the purple loosestrife
8.1 The geography of life: basic terminology
8.2 Wallace’s realms: biotic provinces
8.3 Regional patterns within continents
8.4 Evolution & diversity in biomes
A closer look 8.1: a biogeograpical cross section of North America
8.5 Island biogeography
8.6 Biogeography & people
8.7 Earth’s biomes
Tindra
Taiga or boreal forests
Temperate rain forests
Temperate woodlands
Temperate shrub lands
Temperate grasslands
Tropical rain forests
Tropical seasonal forests & savannas
Deserts
Wetlands
Fresh waters
Intertidal
Open ocean
Benthos
Upwellings
Hydrotermal vents
Summary
Critical thinking issue: escape of an exotic species
Reexamining themes & issues
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XII. Effect of agriculture on the environment (11-8-15Sl vbm)
Case study: clean water farms
12.1 How agriculture changes the environment
12.2 Agriculture & soil erosion
Sediment damage
Making soils sustainable
A closer look 12.1: Soils
12.3 Pest control & agricultural chemicals
Weeds
Development of pesticides
Monitoring pesticides in the environment
A closer look 12.2: DDT
12.4 Integrated pest management
12.5 Genetically modified crops: biotechnology applied to agriculture
The terminator gene
Transfer of genes among one major form of life to another
12.6 Grazing & rangelands
Traditional & industrialized use of grazing & rangelands
The biogeography of agricultural animals
Carrying capacity of grazing lands
12.7 Desetification: regional effect & global impact
Causes of desertification
Preventing desertification
12.8 Global effects of agriculture
Critical thinking issue: should rice be grown in a dry climate?
Summary
Reexamining themes & issues
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XII. EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURE ON THE ENVIRONMENT (11-8-15Sl vbm)
p.216
Soils
Soils can be defined as earth materials modified over time by physical, chemical & biological processes such that, in addition to supporting rooted plant life, they are altered from the original parent material into a series of horizons that are subparallel to the surface [Fig 12.5].

O horizon is composed mostly of organic materials, including decomposed or decomposing leaves, twigs & other organic matter. This horizon is often brown or black

A horizon is composed of both mineral & organic materials. The color is often light black to brown. Leaching, defined as the process of dissolving, washing or draining earth materials by percolation of groundwater or other liquids, occurs in the A horizon & moves clay & other materials, such as iron & calcium, to the B horizon.

E horizon is composed of light-colored materials resulting from leaching of clay, calcium, magnesium & iron to lower horizons. The A & E horizons together constitute the zone of leaching.

B horison is enriched in clay, iron oxides, silica, carbonate or other materials leached from overlying horizons. This horizon is known as the zone of accumulation.

C horizon is composed of partially altered (weathered) parent material; rock is shown here, but the material could also be alluvial in nature, such as river gravels, in other environments. This horizon may be stained red with iron oxides.

D unweathered (unaltered) parent material

[13nov12Sl vbm] Horison O tdd (sebagian besar) bahan organik, termasuk daun2 & ranting2 yg sdh membusuk & bahan organik lainnya. Horison ini umumnya berwarna cokelat atau hitam

Horison A tdd bhn inorganik (mineral) & organik. Warna umumnya kehitaman hingga coklat. Pencucian (leaching) didefkan sbg proses pelarutan oleh perkolasi air tanah atau cairan lainnya yg terjd di horison A & membawa bahan lempung & bhn lainx spt besi & kalsium, ke horison B.

Horison E tdd bhn2 hsl pencucian (lp, calcium, magnesium & besi). Horison A&E disebut zona of leaching

Horison B mengandung bhn2 hsl pencucian dr horison A&E yi lempung, oksida besi, silika, karbonat dll. Horison ini disebut sbg zona akumulasi.

Horison C tdd (sebagian) bhn2 hsl pelapukan batuan induk ttp jg bisa terdpt batuan2 dr lingkungan pengendapan yg berbeda (misalnya aluvial sungai). Warna dr horison ini bisa kemerahan krn terdptx oksida besi.

Horison D berisi batuan induk yg blm mengalami pelapukan.
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VIII. BIOGEOGRAPHY (11-8-15Sl vbm)
Earth’s biomes
[13feb13R sarimadu]
PENGET TTG IKLIM & TANAMAN YG DOMINAN
#knowledge of climate can be usued to predict what kinds of vegetation are likely to be found in a region (B&K 2003:143)

KEANEKARAGAM BERKURANG TP LATITUDE TAMBAH
#another major & intriguing [menarik] geographic pattern is the change in biological diversity w/ latitude. In general, diversity decreases w/ latitude, so that the highest diversity typically occurs in the tropic (B&K 2003:143)

HUTAN HUJAN TROPIS
#tropical rain forest occur where the average temperature is high & relatively constant throughout [selama, sepanjangh] the year & where rainfall is high & relatively frequent [sering] throughout the year (B&K 2003:148)

HUTAN HUJAN TROPIS & BUDAYA HG
#tropical rain forest have long been home for HG cultures, but relatively few civilization have been able to persist [terus ada, bertahan, tetap melakukan] in this biome (B&K 2003:148)
#B&K 2003 G-2: Biome: a kind of ecosystem. The rain forest is an example of a biome; rain forest occur in many parts of the world but are not all connected w/ each other

KEDAPATAN HUTAN HUJAN TROPIS
#~~ south & central America, north eastern Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Borneo, Hawaii & part of Malaysia (B&K 2003:148)

SOIL DI HUTAN HUJAN TROPIS
Except for dead organic matter at the surface, soils tend to be very low in nutrients. Most chemical elements (nutrients) are held in the living vegetations, which has evolved to survive in this environments; otherwise, rainfall would rapidly remove many chemical elements necessary for life (B&K 2003:149)
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[12 Juni 2012Sl Panosogan 3]
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hunter-gatherer
DEF HG
adalah suatu masyarakat yang metode bertahan hidup utamanya ialah memburu atau mengumpulkan secara langsung binatang dan tumbuh-tumbuhan liar yang dapat dimakan, tanpa usaha-usaha yang nyata untuk membudidayakannya (domestikasi) terlebih dahulu. Umumnya para pemburu-pengumpul memperoleh sebagian besar pencahariannya dari hasil pengumpulan dibandingkan dengan berburu, yaitu sekitar 80% dari makanan yang diperoleh

BEDA HG DG AGRI
A hunter-gatherer or forager society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies which rely mainly on domesticated species.

SEMUA MNS ADL HG SD 10.000 BP
Hunting and gathering was the ancestral subsistence mode of Homo, and all modern humans were hunter-gatherers until around 10,000 years ago.

HG DIGANTIAKN DG FARMING or PASTORALIST GROUP
Following the invention of agriculture hunter-gatherers have been displaced by farming or pastoralist groups in most parts of the world

BATAS ANT NG DG AGRI GA JELAS
Garis batas antara masyarakat pemburu-pengumpul dengan jenis masyarakat lainnya yang lebih mengandalkan makanannya pada kegiatan domestikasi (pertanian dan peternakan) kadang-kadang tidak terlalu jelas, mengingat masih terdapat bentuk-bentuk masyarakat yang menggunakan gabungan kedua cara tersebut untuk mendapatkan bahan makanan yang diperlukan dalam usaha mereka untuk mempertahankan hidupnya.

HG ADL CARA HIDUP MNS DULU SD MESOLITIK
Hunting and gathering was presumably the subsistence strategy employed by human societies beginning some 1.8 million years ago, by Homo erectus, and from its appearance some 0.2 million years ago by Homo sapiens. It remained the only mode of subsistence until the end of the Mesolithic period some 10,000 years ago, and after this was replaced only gradually with the spread of the Neolithic Revolution

HG YG ADA SKG
Many of them reside in arid regions and tropical forests in the developing world. Areas which formerly were available to hunter-gatherers were -and continue to be- encroached [menggrogoti] upon by the settlements of agriculturalists.

PERKAMPUNGAN HG
Hunter-gatherer settlements may be either permanent, temporary, or some combination of the two, depending upon the mobility of the community. Mobile communities typically construct shelters using impermanent building materials, or they may use natural rock shelters, where they are available

http://www.mesacc.edu/dept/d10/asb/lifeways/hunt_gather.html
DEF HG
The essence of hunting and gathering or what we might think of as foraging economies is to exploit many resources rather than to depend heavily on only a few. This means they tend to have a generalized subsistence strategy rather than a specialized one. Small, mobile human groups subsist[hidup] on whatever resources are available within a defined territory. They adapt to conditions as they find them, using what is already there.
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