White & Folkens

1] Estimating subadult (<18yrs) age from the dentition
# Tooth development is more closely associated with chronological age than is development of most other skeletal parts and it seems to be under tighter genetic control (White and Folken 1991:310)
# Sex-based variation in development and eruption of teeth is most apparent at the canine position, and this tooth should be afforded less attention [sebaiknya diabaikan] when aging eruption dentitions (White and Folken 1991:311)
# When assessing the age of a subadult individual based on dentition, note all aspects of development, including the completeness of all crowns and roots (formation) and the place of each tooth relative to the alveolar margin (eruption) (White and Folken 1991:311)

2] Estimating adult (+18yrs) age from the dentition
# Once a permanent tooth erupts, it begins to wear. If the rate of wear within a population is fairly homogeneous, it follows that the extent [tk, luasx] of wear is a function of age. This fact can be used in assigning dental ages to adult specimens (White and Folken 1991:311)
# Rate and patterns of wear are governed by tooth developmental sequences, tooth morphology, tooth size, internal crown structure, tooth angulation, nondietary tooth use, the biomechanics of chewing and diet (McKee and Molnar 1988 in White and Folken 1991:311)
# The first step in assesing age by dentition is the application of seriation of all dentitions based on development and wear. Miles (1963) was the first to establish a scale of attrition based on development.[1may14K libur hr buruh int’l vbm] The basics of the technique are as utilized in the following example: a first molar (M1) accumulates [mengumpul, mengumpulkan] about 6 yrs of wear before the second molar (M2) of the same individual erupts (assuming eruption at 6 & 12 yrs, respectively). When a similar amount of wear (6 yrs’ worth [nilai hraga]) is found on a third molar (M3) of another individual ( a molar assumed to have erupted at age 18), the age of that individual can be estimated as 18+6= 24yrs. Miles uses 6, 6.5 & 7 yrs between successive molar erpution (White and Folken 1991:311)
# Lovejoy (1985 in White and Folken 1991:311) found, on the populational level, that dental wear was very regular in form and rate. As Lovejoy notes, the assessment of a single individual in a forensic setting based on dental wear allows only a gross approximation of age, but if an entire biologica; population is seriated, tooth wear can yield precise result.

3] Estimating adult age from cranial sutute closure
# It has been appreciated since the 1500s that sutures between various cranial bones fuse progressively as the individual ages (White and Folken 1991:313)
# One cranial feature, the sphenooccipital synchondrosis, is particularly useful in aging isolated crania because at least 95% of all individuals have fusion here between 20 and 25 yrs of age, with a central tendency at 23 yrs of age (Krogman and Iscan 1986 in White and Folken 1991:313)

4] Estimating adult age from the pubic symphysis surface
# One of the most widely used indicators of age at death has been metamorphosis of the symphyseal surface of the pubis of the os coxae (White and Folken 1991:315)
# The young adult human pubic symphysis has a rugged surface traversed by horizontal ridges and intervening grooves. This surface loses relief with age and is bounded by a rim by age 35. Subsequent erosion and general deterioration of the surface are progressive changes after this age (White and Folken 1991:315)
# Age-related chnages at the pubic symphysis have been recognized for many yeras and a formal system for using these changes to determine age was developed by Todd (1920 in White and Folken 1991:315)

5] Estimating adult age from the ilium’s auricular surface
# Lovejoy at.al (1985b in White and Folken 1991:318) examined the auricular surface of the os coxae as a possible site of regular change corresponding to age in the Hamann-Todd collection.
# Lovejoy and colleagues describe age-related changes in surface granulation, microporosity, macroporosity, transverse organization, billowing and striations that are somewhat similar to those described for the surface of the pubic symphysis (White and Folken 1991:318)
[29-3-18K lab mikropal]
White, T.D, Black, M.T. & Folkens, P.A. 2012. Human osteology 3rd. Academic Press [29-3-18K lab mikropal]

6.2.1 Anatomy (Figures 6.2–6.4)
#The vertebral column is most often composed of 33 elements in the adult human. Of these, 24 are separate (movable vertebrae), and the others are variably fused within the bony pelvis
=>vertebral column tdd 33 elemen pada manusia dewasa. Dari jumlah tersebut, 24 terpisah (tulang belakang bergerak) & yang lain secara bergabergabung dg pelvis

#It should always be possible to identify isolated, even fragmentary individual vertebrae by type— cervical, thoracic, or lumbar
=>Dimungkin untuk mengidentifikasi masing2 tl vertebra yg tdd – cervical (C), thoracic (T) & lumbar (L)

#Cervical vertebrae are in the neck, thoracic vertebrae in the thorax, and lumbar vertebrae just superior to the bony pelvis
=>Tl cervical berada di leher, tl thoracic di dada & tl lumbar di atas pelvis

#Within these units, individual vertebrae are designated by letter (L, lumbar; T, thoracic; and C, cervical) and identified by number from superior to inferior. For example, the most superior thoracic vertebra is designated T-1

#Successive [ber-turut2] vertebrae articulate [bersambung] directly with one another across synovial joints [sendi]
=>Vertebra berturut bersambung melalui sendi sinovial

#The three primary functions of each vertebra are to bear body weight, to anchor muscles and ligaments, and to protect the spinal cord

#When the entire column or large segments of the column are available for a single individual, it is easy to identify each vertebra by type and number. From the cervical vertebrae through the lumbar vertebrae, each successive vertebral body (or centrum) is larger caudally because of successively greater weight-bearing responsibilities

#Some individual vertebrae, like the atlas (C-1), are diagnosed easily, even if [sekalipun] isolated, because of their unique morphology. Others, particularly mid-cervicals and mid-thoracics, are far more difficult to identify by number when found disassociated from the other vertebrae

#Individuals can vary in the number of vertebrae they have in each category. This variation may occur in over 10% of all individuals in a skeletal population. Variation from the usual condition most often involves the shifting of a vertebral element from its typical category to an adjacent [berdekatan] category. The most frequent deviation from the usual pattern of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, and 5 lumbar vertebrae is the case of an extra thoracic or lumbar vertebra with an associated shift, as with 13 thoracic and 4 lumbar vertebrae
=>Jml vertebrae bervariasi di setiap kategori. Variasi ini dapat terjadi pada lebih dari 10% dari semua individu dalam populasi skeletal. Variasi dari kondisi biasa paling sering melibatkan pergeseran elemen vertebral dari kategori khas ke kategori yang berdekatan. Penyimpangan yang paling sering dari pola umum 7 cervic, 12 thoracic & 5 lumbar adalah kasus vertebra toraks atau lumbar ekstra dengan pergeseran terkait, seperti dengan 13 toraks dan 4 lumbar


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