Klein 1989

[3jan13R vbm] Gambar/diagram ini memperlihatkan perubahan iklim yg terjadi pada jaman Plestosen. Kemudian adax perubahan iklim tsb dikaitan dg pekembangan budaya [teknologi] yg terjd di Eropa.

Pada gambar tsb dpt dilihat bhw perkembangan budaya Paleolitik Atas di Eropa yg terjd pd jaman Plestosen Atas dg kisaran ant 40-35ribu th yl & 10ribu th yl bertepatan dg kondisi iklim di Eropa(?) adalah menjelang berakhirx jaman Es. Selanjutx, perkembangan budaya Neolitik dst di Eropa bertepatan dg dg kondisi iklim yang panas. BGM DG DI INDO?

[3jan13R vbm] Gambar/diagram ini memperlihatkan batas umur ant H.erectus & H.sapiens di East Asia sekitar 250rb th yl sedangkan di Afrika sekitar 500rb th yl. Artinya pemunculan H.sapiens (secara anatomi?) di Afrika terjd lebih awal

[3jan13R vbm] Gambar/diagram ini memperlihatkan bbrp hipotesa evolusi pada gol hominid. Skema B lebih banyak dipakai dmn munculx genus Homo berasal dr evolusi A.africanus. Sedangkan H.sapiens sendiri berkembang dr evolusi H.ergaster




[15jan13Sl vbm] In the early Cenozoic, global climates were relatively warm & equable [tetap, hampir ga ubah], w/ relatively little difference in temperature between the equator & the poles. World teperatures rose slightly during the Paleocene to a peak in the early Eocene, before beginning along decline. A sharp drop occurred in the very early Oligocene, about 36mya, perhaps associated w/ transient [sementara, yg berpindah] glaciation in Antartica (fig.1.8) (Shackleton & Kennett 1975; Miller & Fairbanks 1985; Shackleton 1986). This & later [kmd]drops were probably caused mainly by changes in atmospheric & oceanic circulation patterns brought about by changes in the configuration & topography of the continents (Laporte & Zihlman 1983). Throughout the Oligocene & earlier Miocene, global temperatures were generally lower than in the earlier Cenozoic, but they were relatively stable

[15jan13Sl vbm] A sharp temperature plunge [terjun, menceburkan diri] in the late Miocene, between 16mya & 13mya, probably coincides w/ the formation of a permanent East Antartica ice sheet, which has retained roughly its present dimensions ever since
#An acute [tajam] cold episode near the end of the Miocene between roughly 6.5mya & 5mya, perhaps added a permanent West Antartica ice sheet to its East Antartica neighbor. The growth of glacier during this interval sucked [mengisap] so much water from the oceans that the connection between the Atlantic & the Mediterranean completely dried up, leaving behind vast salt deposits.
#In the interval immediately following 5mya, global temperatures partly recovered & the Mediterranean refilled (&has remained full since).Then, in the mid-Pliocene, roughly 3.2mya, temperatures fell again, initiating [memulai, memprakarsai] the formation of glaciers on the northern continents & a pattern of cyclic climatic oscillation between long cold intervals & shorter, warmer ones began (Shackleton & Opdyke 1977). The cold intervals apparently intensified about 2.5mya & again about 800-900 kya (Prell et.al. 1982; Roberts 1984; Shackleton et.al. 1984)

[15jan13Sl vbm] This late-Cenozoic cold-warm oscillation was probably caused mainly by minor, cyclic variation in the amount of solar heat the earth receives, reflecting regular, cyclic changes in the shape of its orbit & in the tilt[kemiringan, ayunan] & wobble [goyangan] of its spin [putaran] axis (Hays et,al. 1976; Imbrie & Imbrie 1979; Imbrie etl.al. 1984)

[15jan13Sl vbm] Beginning in the mid-1950s, however, studies of sediments from the deep-sea floor have shown that the number of major glaciations was far greater. There were 8 during the past 730kya, 17 in the past [yg lalu] 1.7mya & at least 21 during the past 2.5mya (van Donk 1976). Although the four-glaciation Alpine scheme survives in some textbooks, it should be totally abandoned.

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