[24jan13K sarimadu maulid Muhammad saw]
RICE GROWING CEREMONIES
For the rice farmer & his family every phase of rice cultivation has a religious significance & special rituals apply to each stage of the rice plant’s life. These rituals are a blend [paduan] of indigenous animistic beliefs & Hinduism, w/ alter additions from Islamic influence [p.101]
RICE CULTIVATION [p.32-33]
The type of soil & the topography of the area to be brought under cultivation determine the type of rice cultivation [penanaman, pembudayaan]. There are two methods of cultivation: dry-field & wet-field, both of which are referred to in Old Javanese inscription [p.32]
1) Dry-field cultivation: in ancient Java this method was referred to [disebut] as TEGAL & GAGA. Tegal land mainly refers [mengacu] to unterraced fields or fields on open plains or flat ground: the term remains in use to the present. Tegal land is not considered as valuable an asset as sawah land. Gaga, a term also in use at present, (gogo), refers to permanent unterraced dry fields on hilly slopes or in the mountains. They are less intensively cultivated than tegal land but more intensively so than ladang (swidden). Unlike ladang, gaga is permanent farmland. Gaga is mentioned in characters, as well as sawah & renek.
There are references in inscriptions to changes having been made from tegal cultivation to sawah cultivation, which we may take as an indication of the extension of an existing irrigation system in the neighborhood, where the tegal land would have been required as extra acreage [areal, luas tnh dlm acre] for sawah.
2) Wet-field cultivation: where rice during the course of many centuries became adapted to growing in water, cultivation on a more intensive scale could be carried out, on land dependent on rain-water run-off or by means of artificial irrigation. This is known as sawah cultivation in Indonesia & the rice grown in sawah is referred to [disebut] as padi.
THE ANTIQUITY OF SAWAH CULTIVATION in JAVA [p.1]
Wet-rice cultivation in SE.Asia is of acknowledged [diakui] antiquity [peninggalan kuno] but its place of origin, whether, for instance, it may have been in Yunnan (Kwang 1968) or in Northwest Thailand (Solheim 1972), is a subject of debate among scholars at the present time. There are also diverging [berbeda] opinions concerning the question of when wet-rice farming was introduced to island SE.Asia, or even whether it evolved as a matter [masalah] of course independently in certain regions within the island world & subsequently [kmd, setelah itu] spread further eastwards. Spencer (1963), for example, considers that wet-rice cultivation was transmitted at a very early date to the islands of SE.Asia, for example Northern Luzon, western Sumatra, Java & the southern part of Celebes (Sulawesi) as well as offshoots [cabang] to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) & Madagascar.
Fisher (1972) states that in SE.Asia during the Neolithic period there already existed a culture not inferior to that of India –a culture w/ a matrilinear social structure, pile [tiang, gundukan] houses, highly developed seamanship -& irrigated rice cultivation. Lekkerkerker (1928), although he concedes [mengakui] that dry-rice cultivation was probably brought to Indonesia from the mainland at a very early point in time, considers that wet-rice cultivation was discovered independently in Java.
#Finds of stone adzes such as the PACUL indicates that wet-rice farming was practiced at a very early periods in Java. Sutjipto Wirjosupato (1969) draws attention to [menaruh perhatian] the discovery of pacul over a wide area in Java, which, as this tool is obviously not an implement for ladang use, bears [contain] witness [saksi, kesaksian] to the practice of sawah cultivation in Java as early as the Neolithic period.