Sawah

[24jan13K sarimadu maulid Muhammad saw]
RICE GROWING CEREMONIES
For the rice farmer & his family every phase of rice cultivation has a religious significance & special rituals apply to each stage of the rice plant’s life. These rituals are a blend [paduan] of indigenous animistic beliefs & Hinduism, w/ alter additions from Islamic influence [p.101]
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] UPACARA PANEN PADI: Bagi petani padi dan keluarganya setiap fase budidaya padi memiliki makna religius & ritual khusus berlaku untuk setiap tahap kehidupan tanaman padi. Ritual ini adalah perpaduan antara kepercayaan animisme dan agama Hindu & juga pengaruh Islam

RICE CULTIVATION [p.32-33]
The type of soil & the topography of the area to be brought under cultivation determine the type of rice cultivation [penanaman, pembudayaan]. There are two methods of cultivation: dry-field & wet-field, both of which are referred to in Old Javanese inscription [p.32]
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] BUDIDAYA BERAS: Jenis tanah & topografi di suatu daerah yang akan dibudidayakan menentukan jenis budidaya padi. Ada dua metode budidaya yang tertulis dlm prasasti Jawa Kuno yaitu: lahan kering & lahan basah

1) Dry-field cultivation: in ancient Java this method was referred to [disebut] as TEGAL & GAGA. Tegal land mainly refers [mengacu] to unterraced fields or fields on open plains or flat ground: the term remains in use to the present. Tegal land is not considered as valuable an asset as sawah land. Gaga, a term also in use at present, (gogo), refers to permanent unterraced dry fields on hilly slopes or in the mountains. They are less intensively cultivated than tegal land but more intensively so than ladang (swidden). Unlike ladang, gaga is permanent farmland. Gaga is mentioned in characters, as well as sawah & renek.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] 1) Budidaya di lahan kering: Di Jawa kuno metode ini disebut sebagai TEGAL & GAGA. Tegal mengacu pada tanah yang tdk berteras atau dataran terbuka & datar. Fungsi tegal tdk sebaik sawah.Gaga, istilah yang juga digunakan saat ini, (gogo), mengacu pada ladang kering permanen yang belum diratakan di lereng berbukit atau di pegunungan. Mereka kurang intensif dibudidayakan daripada tanah tegal tapi lebih intensif dibudidayakan daripada ladang (swidden). Tidak seperti ladang, gaga adalah lahan pertanian permanen.

There are references in inscriptions to changes having been made from tegal cultivation to sawah cultivation, which we may take as an indication of the extension of an existing irrigation system in the neighborhood, where the tegal land would have been required as extra acreage [areal, luas tnh dlm acre] for sawah.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] Pada prasasti ada informasi ttg perubahan dari budidaya tegal kebudidaya sawah, yang mungkin kita anggap sebagai indikasi perpanjangan sistem irigasi yang ada di lingkungan sekitar, dimana tanah tegal akan dibutuhkan sebagai areal tambahan untuk sawah

2) Wet-field cultivation: where rice during the course of many centuries became adapted to growing in water, cultivation on a more intensive scale could be carried out, on land dependent on rain-water run-off or by means of artificial irrigation. This is known as sawah cultivation in Indonesia & the rice grown in sawah is referred to [disebut] as padi.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] 2) Budidaya di lahan basah: pertumbuhan padi selama berabad-abad bergantung ketersediaan air yaitu air hujan atau irigasi. Ini dikenal sebagai budidaya sawah di Indonesia dan padi yang ditanam di sawah disebut sebagai padi

THE ANTIQUITY OF SAWAH CULTIVATION in JAVA [p.1]
Wet-rice cultivation in SE.Asia is of acknowledged [diakui] antiquity [peninggalan kuno] but its place of origin, whether, for instance, it may have been in Yunnan (Kwang 1968) or in Northwest Thailand (Solheim 1972), is a subject of debate among scholars at the present time. There are also diverging [berbeda] opinions concerning the question of when wet-rice farming was introduced to island SE.Asia, or even whether it evolved as a matter [masalah] of course independently in certain regions within the island world & subsequently [kmd, setelah itu] spread further eastwards. Spencer (1963), for example, considers that wet-rice cultivation was transmitted at a very early date to the islands of SE.Asia, for example Northern Luzon, western Sumatra, Java & the southern part of Celebes (Sulawesi) as well as offshoots [cabang] to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) & Madagascar.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] BUDIDAYA KUNO SAWAH DI JAWA: Budidaya padi sawah di SE.Asia adalah barang kuno yang diakui namun sumbernya belum diketahui pasti apakah dari Yunnan (Kwang 1968) atau Northwest Thailand (Solheim 1972). Pendapat lain dari Spencer (1963) yang menganggap bahwa budidaya padi sawah dilakukan sangat awal di pulau-pulau SE.Asia, misalnya Luzon Utara, Sumatera bagian barat, Jawa & bagian selatan Sulawesi (Sulawesi) dan juga cabang ke Sri Lanka & Madagaskar

Fisher (1972) states that in SE.Asia during the Neolithic period there already existed a culture not inferior to that of India –a culture w/ a matrilinear social structure, pile [tiang, gundukan] houses, highly developed seamanship -& irrigated rice cultivation. Lekkerkerker (1928), although he concedes [mengakui] that dry-rice cultivation was probably brought to Indonesia from the mainland at a very early point in time, considers that wet-rice cultivation was discovered independently in Java.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] Fisher (1972) menyatakan bahwa di SE.Asia selama periode Neolitik, sudah ada budaya yang tidak kalah dengan budaya India antralain struktur sosial matrilinear, rumah susun, pelayaran yang sangat maju – & budidaya padi dg irigasi. Lekkerkerker (1928), meskipun ia mengakui bahwa budidaya padai di lahan kering mungkin dibawa ke Indonesia dari daratan Asia, tetapi dia berpendapat bhw budidaya padi di lahan basah berkembang secara mandiri di Jawa

#Finds of stone adzes such as the PACUL indicates that wet-rice farming was practiced at a very early periods in Java. Sutjipto Wirjosupato (1969) draws attention to [menaruh perhatian] the discovery of pacul over a wide area in Java, which, as this tool is obviously not an implement for ladang use, bears [contain] witness [saksi, kesaksian] to the practice of sawah cultivation in Java as early as the Neolithic period.
=>[2-3-18J lab mikropal] Temuan adzes batu seperti PACUL menunjukkan bahwa budidaya padi di lahan basah dipraktekkan pada periode yang sangat awal di Jawa. Sutjipto Wirjosupato (1969) berdasarkan penemuan pacul (tdk dipakai di lahan kering) di wilayah yang luas di Jawa, menjadi saksi praktik budidaya sawah di Jawa sejak periode Neolitik

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