Higham 2002

#Munculx budaya menanam padi sbg sumber makanan dianggap s/ hal yg menandai perubahan kebiasaan dr budaya HG menjd budaya pertanian khususx di SE.ASia [p.83]

#S/ hipotesa yg mengatakan budaya menanam padi di SE.Asia datangx dr Cina was largely disregarded [diabaikan] (Sørensen 1972 in p.83)
#Between approximatelly 300BC — AD300, the coastal SE.Asian chiefdoms increasingly participated in the southern silk route, a series of maritime exchange routes linking the empires of Roma & China [p.231]
==>Kerajaan2 yg berdiri di pantai SE.Asi pd 300BC — AD300 dipicu o/ adax southern silk route
#The temple thus plays a key role in Hindu rituals [p.232]
#The transition to the state in the Mekong delta took place swiftly during the early centuries AD. Archaeologically, this is manifested in walled cities, brick temples, extensive canals, a writing system & monumental statuary [p.243]


@SIDHARTA GAUTAMA ==>563 — 483BC [p.231]

#The traditional Iron Age mortuary ritual of extended inhumation was replaced by cremation & the adoption of exotic cults is seen in images of Indian deities, together w/ the taking of Sankrit royal names. These developments took place in the Mekong delta, an area strategically placed for participation [pengikutsertaan], in the southern, maritime silk route

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@subsistence org pd jaman bronze age blm banyak diteliti
The subsistence base which underwrote [mempertanggungkan] the expansion of human settlement during the bronze age remains [adl tetap] little known, but some general variables are beginning to respond to laboratory analysis (p.159)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@analisis tl u/ rekons health
The acid [tajam] test for the success of subsistence is of course, the health of the people. This can be considered on the basis of their skeletal remains [sisa, tinggalan] (p.159)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@fenomena situs hunian lama ditempat tinggi
We usually find settlements on slightly elevated ground, adjacent to tract of low terrace soil in the middle courses of tributary streams (p.159) ~~ all much early sites are set back [memundurkan, menurunkan] from the zone of maximum flooding & it seems a reasonable supposition [anggapan] that this reflects conditions compatible [sesuai, cocok] w/ the exploitation of rice & both forest fringe [tepi, pinggir] & aquatic fauna (p.160)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@letak Mudar ==>situs bronze age
Mudar, however, has also shown in the Lam Maleng valley that some bronze age sites were located on the upper terrace, perhaps as specialized foci for the manufacture of stone artifacts (p.159)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@budaya kubur di Non Nok Tha
The prehistoric occupants [penghuni, penduduk] of Non Nok Tha placed pig remains, sometimes complete animals, in human graves (p.161)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@guna analisa temper clay
In the absence of any rice grains, Bayard turned [mengalihkan] to an analysis of the material used to temper clay whane making pottery. Although an admixture of sand was the predominant technique used during Early Period 1, about 1.5% of the 680 sherds [pecahan tembikar] examined were tempered [melembutkan] w/ sand & rice chaff [sekam] (p.161)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@temuan pig, water buffalo, dog & cattle [sapi] di Ban Lum Khao
In terms of the larger mammalian fauna, the pig is relatively common throughout the sequence [rangkaian]. Cattle [sapi] are rare, while water buffalo appears regularly only in the lower layers. The dog is present throughout the sequence but in low frequencies ~~ the small & larger deer, probably muntjak & sambar, were found consistently, but never in large numbers. It is clear that domestic cattle & pigs were maintained, but that hunting continued consistently throughout the bronze age (p.162) ~~ consequently, it is concluded that there were no major changes in species frequently during the prehistoric occupation [pendudukan, hal mendiami] of Ban Lum Khao (p.162)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@def subsistence [penghidupan]
Subsistence activities included harvesting rice, maintaining domestic stock, hunting, trapping, fissing & collecting shellfish (p.163)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@agri & HG ber-sama2
There is little doubt too, that this represents only a partial [sebgan, tdk lengkap] picture. Even today, when the casual [sambil lalu] observer would conclude that subsistence is dominated by rice & fish, much gathering & foraging is also undertaken [melakukan] (p.163)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@bukti makanan sedikit tp bukti alat banyak
It’s unfortunate that so many possible sources of food leave no trace in the archaeological record ~~ the principal implement which has survived is the stone axe or adze [kapak] (p.163)

[23-4-14R vmb; tik 24-4-14K lab mikropal]@sifat/kebiasaan mns
The initial settlers lived in a monsoon environ which incorporated [menggabungkan] lakes, clear perennial [abadi, tahan lama] streams & deciduous woodland. They selected slightly elevated terrain & cleared the vegetation in low-lying wetlands to encourage [mendorong] the proliferation [penyebaran, perkembang-biakan] of rice (p.163)

[12-5-14Sn vbm] Archaeological research in Bac Bo, northeast Thailand & the Chao Phraya valley has disclosed [membuka, menyingkapkan] a pattern of settlement, a series of mortuary assemblages & a number of artefacts which suggest the former existence there of chiefdoms ~~ By the 9th century AD, at least four states existed in SE.Asia ~~ Our task is to understand how the chiefdoms of the late Iron age were transformed over a period of perhaps no more than a century, into early states [p.229]


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s