[7-2-14J vbm] Cosmologies & human origins [p.42]
#The most profound [medlm] human questions are the ones that perplex [membingungkan] us the most [paling]. Who are we? Where did we come from? Why are we here? What is our place in the universe? These questions have been shared [memiliki] by all peoples throughout history. Most cultures have developed sophisticated [canggih]explanations that provide answers to these fundamental [mendsr, sangat penting] questions.
==>pertanyaan yang paling susah unt dijawab oleh kita sebagai manusia al: Siapa kita ini? Darimana kita berasal? Knp kita hidup di bumi ini? Apakah ada tempat lain selain di bumi dmn kita bs hidup? Ini adl bbrp pertanyaan ttg diri kita sendiri yg selalu dipertanyaan oleh kita sendiri (umat manusia) sepanjang sejarahnya (dari masa ke masa). Solusi thd pertanyaan2 yang fundamental tsb, dari kacamata budaya (berati termasuk agama dong), telah banyak dilakukan orang.
#Cosmologies are conceptual frameworks [kerangka, batasan] that present [mengajukan] the universe (the cosmos) as an orderly [tertib, rapi] system.
==>Kosmologi adl s/ konsepsi (pengertian, pendapat) atau kerangkan pemikiran/ide yg menerangkan bhw alam semesta itu adl s/ sistim yang teratur rapi
They often include answers to these basic questions about the place of humankind in the universe & human origins, usually considered the most sacred [paling suci] of all cosmological concepts [pengertian, ide]
Cosmologies account [menjelaskan] for the ways in which supernatural beings [mahl gaib] or forces formed the earth & people
==>kosmologi menjelaskan cara bhw adax s/ kekuatan (atau mahl gaib) yg menciptakan bumi & mns. Mrk diutus kesetiap generasi dlm bnt ritual, pendidikan, hukum, seni & bhs
They are transmitted [menyebarkan, meneruskan, mewariskan] from generation to generation through ritual [yg berhub dg upacara agama], education, laws, art & language
#Qoryatin dlm suratAl Israa (17) ayat 16 diartikan juga sbg “NEGERI”. Dlm surat Al Hajj 22:45 “qoryatin” diartikan sbg kota (urban)
#QORYAH atau QURO itu adl tempat yang ramai dalam artian bhw pendudukx sdh mempunyai budaya yg cukup tinggi ==> artix sdh memp PERADABAN ==> jd ada hubungan antara peradaban dengan perkotaan (urban)
#Ciri s/ negeri/kota adl inhabited/populated by 7000-20.000 inhabitants, long-distance trade, a highly specialized divisions of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to agricultural productions [dengan peran ekonomi selain yang berkaitan dengan produksi pertanian] & has written source (DeCorse 2000:182,185)
#[19Dec07R Flanner 641] Ada korelasi ant kemakmuran suatu kota, negara dst dg munculnya budaya penyembahan berhala. Pd umumnya mns yg berada didlm komunitas tsb, berdasarkan surat al jaatsiyah ayat 22-26, 32, krn hidupnya hanya u/ ber-senang2 sj, mempunyai pemikiran bhw hidup ini hanya di dunia sj. Contoh dr masy yg makmur & mrk mempunyai budaya menyembah berhala adl kaum nabi Huud as (46: 21-22) & nabi Ibrahim as (43: 26-29) ==> PERADABAN JAMAN HUUD AS & IBRAHIM AS.. DMN MRK HIDUP?
#Keberadaan suatu kota sdh ada sejak dulu dan kota yg dianggap yg paling tua diwakili oleh Jericho & Catal Huyuk yg hadir pada jaman Neolitik.
#Munculx perkotaan di Indonesia berkaitn dg proses Indianisasi yg dimulai pd th 450M (Soeroso 2006:123) atau pd 0M (Bellwood 2000:388)
#Awal mula munculnya kerajaan-kerajaan (atau terbentuknya sentralisasi politik) di wilayah Asia tenggara adl setelah masuknya kebudayaan dari India yang mana Coedes (1968) menyebutnya sbg proses INDIANISASI yang membawa paham idiologi (agama Hindu & Budha) [https://tarucing.wordpress.com/2013/08/08/awal-pembentukan-kerajaan-kerajaan/]
#Munculx kampung2 di Jawa waktux ber-beda2 tetapi secara umum berkisar dr abad 9-13M. Buktix diperoleh dr catatan2 yg ditulis di prasasti atau lempeng kuningan (Lombard 1996:11) [https://tarucing.wordpress.com/2013/09/28/lombard-3-1996/]
[10may14St vbm] Mostly people agree the advent of domestication during the Neolithic brought many changes to human societies such as more settled communities, population growth & increased social stratification. Later, those changes, particularly beginning approximately 5500 BP, caused the appearance of complex societies so called civilization which is marked by the raising of state (see also Ember & Ember 2012) or institutional government run by fulltime officials. For example, the intensification of agriculture was accompanied by the rise of agrarian state in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India & China (DeCorse 2000:182)
According to Childe (1950 in DeCorse 2000:182), the rise of civilization could be easily defined by the appearance of a specific combination of features among others the urban centers which was inhabited/populated by 7000-20.000 inhabitants, long-distance trade, a highly specialized divisions of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to agricultural productions [dengan peran ekonomi selain yang berkaitan dengan produksi pertanian] (DeCorse 2000:182) & has written source although this idea has been argued by Bruce Trigger (1993 in DeCorse 2000:185) because there are no obvious differences in social, political & economic organization between societies that had writing & those that did not.
==>[17may14St vbm om adang wafat jam 7.30pm] V. Gordon CHILDE invented the concept of the Neolithic Revolution in the1920s [National Geographic vol.219, no.6, June 2011]
[11-5-14M vbm] According to Elman Service (1971 in DeCorse 2000:184), state as a politican system differs structurally from other (political) societies. It is characterized by some items such as
1] State is a centralized bureaucratic institution to establish power & authority over large populations in different territories
2] state systems are not based on kinship
3] In state system landownership & occupation became more important than kinship in organizing societies
4] The phenomenon of social inequality [kesenjangan sosial] is more prominent in state system
Most scholars considered that the early (state) society is agricultural state. This state arose in many parts of the world. Six of the earliest were in Mesopotamia (3500BC), the Egyptian Old kingdom (3500BC), China (2500BC), the Indus River valley, India (2500BC) & Mexico & Peru (300BC). These societies exhibited many of specific combination of features among others the urban centers which was inhabited/populated by 7000-20.000 inhabitants, long-distance trade, a highly specialized divisions of labor, with economic roles other than those pertaining to agricultural productions [dengan peran ekonomi selain yang berkaitan dengan produksi pertanian] (DeCorse 2000:182) & has written source although this idea has been argued by Bruce Trigger (1993 in DeCorse 2000:185) because there are no obvious differences in social, political & economic organization between societies that had writing & those that did not.
In SE.Asia the agricultural state appeared lately. During between approximately 300BC – AD300, especially along the coastal area emerged chiefdom societies which was supported by the southern silk route, a series of maritime exchange routes linking the empires of Roma & China.
The chiefdom society differs from the (agricultural) state. The former are still fundamentally organized by kinship principles,
but the later are not (Service 1971 in DeCorse 2000:184)
In case in the Mekong delta, the transition to the higher societies, that was the (agricultural) state, took place swiftly [dg cepat] during the early centuries AD (Higham 2002:231,243). According to DeCorse (2000:184), one major factor that contributed to the evolution of agricultural states was the development of a more sophisticated technology
[10may14St vbm]@PEMBAGIAN SOCIETIES [POLITICAL SYSTEM]
#Many anthropologists use variations of a four-fold classification system first developed by anthropologist Elman Service (1971), which divides societies into BANDS, TRIBES, CHIEFDOMS & STATE (DeCorse 2000:183)
#a band is the least [paling sedikit/kecil] complex -& most likely, the oldest- form of political system. It is the most common form among HG societies & is based on close kinship relations within a fairly small group of people
#tribes are more complex societies w/ political institutions that unite larger groupings of people into a political system. They do not have centralized, formal political institutions, but they do have SODALITIES, groups based on kinship, age,or gender that provide for more complex political organization
#chiefdom political systems are more complex than tribal societies in that they are formalized & centralized.Chiefdoms establish centralized authority [kekuasaan, penguasa] over many communities through a variety of complex economic, social & religious institutions. Despite their size & complexity, however, chiefdoms are still fundamentally organized by kinship principles. Although chiefdoms have different levels of status & political authority, the people within these levels are related to one another through kinship ties. Eric Wolf (1982) has referred to bands, tribes & chiefdomes as kin-ordered societies
#[11-5-14M vbm]The state is structurally distinguished from other (political) societies on the basis of an institutionalized bureaucracy or government. State are political systems w/ centralized bureaucratic institution to establish power & authority over large populations in different territories while the ruler of a state may be an inherited position, state systems are not based on kinship (DeCorse 2000:184) ==> SRIWJAYA MG STATE KUD YG PD PERMULAAN BERUPA AGRI STATE KAH?? APAKAH BUKTI DI BTJAYA MENGINDIKASIKAN ADAX STATE OR CHIEFDOM? APAKAH JAMAN FIRAUN MERUPAKAN STATE?
Because early states were more complex & highly organized than prestate societies, they could not rely solely on kinship for different status positions. Landownership & occupation [jabatan, pek, kesibukan] became more important than kinship in organizing societies. In the highly centralized agricultural societies, the state itself replaced kin groups as the major integaring principle. State bureaucracies govern [memerintah, menguasai, mengendalikan] on behalf of ruling authorities through procedures that plan, direct & coordinate highly political processes.
[11-5-14M vbm]@AGRICUL STATE ADL BNT EARLY (STATE) SOCIETIES (DeCorse 2000:184)
#~~ the term agriculture states is often used to describe these early societies ~~~ over time [dr waktu ke waktu], some agricultural villages began to produce crafts & commodities not just for their own consumption but for trade w/ other villages & w/ the urban centers. W/ increasing long-distance trade, regional & local marketplaces, as well as marketplaces, in the urban areas, began to emerge
[11-5-14M vbm]@FUNGSI PENGUASA DI AGRI STATE
#The power of the rules in agricultural states was often expressed in sumptuous [mewah] palaces, monumental [bersifat menimbulkan kesan peringatan pada sesuatu yang agung] architecture & a luxuriant [subur, ber-limpah2] lifestyle [gaya hidup]
[17may14St vbm om adang wafat jam 7.30pm]@THE OASIS THEORY
#In the 1930s, V. Gordon CHILDE (1936, 1952) advanced on of the first scientific theories concerning the move to domestication. Childe suggested that at the end of the Pleis a major climatic change transformed the environment in regions like Southwest Asia & made new subsistence strategies [cara ber mtpencaharian atau cara cari makan] necessary [keperluan]. Severe droughts forced humans to move to isolated fertile areas called OASES & to take up [mengambil, mempelajari] agriculture. According to Childe, who called this presumed period of dramatic change the “Neolithic revolution”, agriculture enabled [membolehkan] humans to maintain a reliable food supply in extreme conditions. Once invented [menciptakan, menemukan], the concept of food production spread rapidly to other regions [DeCorse 2000:166]
#However, scientists have not determined conclusively why domestication initially took place… as we know agriculture takes much more time & energy than HG. In addition agri production is a risky enterprise…. HG represents a highly successful subsistence strategy.. HG has a great deal more leisure time than their agrarian neighbors (ilmu siasat). [DeCorse 2000:166]
@PENURUNAN KESEHATAN PD MASA AGRI
[24-5-14St vbm] Pertumbuhan jml penddk mulai meningkat selama peralihan dr cara hidup HG ke masy petani (agri). Ttp peningkatan ini, u/ dibbrp tempat, justru menurunkan tk kesehatan
masy (Cohen & Armelagos 1984; Larsen 1995). Ini mg disebabkan: increasingly brought people into contact w/ one another, facilitating the spread of infectious disease. In some cases people also became dependent on particular domesticated
plants like corn, to the exclusion of most other foodstuffs. This restricted diet did not fullfill nutritional requirements as well as that of HG, which encompassed [mencakup, meliputi, involve] a wide variety of both plants & animals. Reliance on [ketergantungan kpd] one crops rather than on a variety of wild resources also boosted [mendorong, menaikan, menyokong] the risk of famine [DeCorse 2000:177-178]
[25-6-14R m.Al Musyarokat jl.Maribaya 140 Lembang; arisan di flying market]
WESTERN TRADITION OF ORIGIN [p.43]
Dlm kebud barat kuno khususx kebud Yunani kuno (ancient Greek) punya banyak hipotes ttg tercopx mns:
1] Prometheus: menurut dia mns berasal dr air & bumi
2] Zeus: Pyrrha dewa api melemparkan batu keblk lalu menjd lk2 & perempuan
3] Thales of Miletus (c. 636-546BC): bhw kehidupan bermula di laut & mns pd awalx bebnt spt ikan yg kmd pindah ke darat lalu berevol menjd mamalia
4] Aristotle (384-322BC): mengusulkan proses pencipt mel evol yi dr bnt simpel ke komplek
5] Biblical book of Genesis
a/ Judaic: Tuhan mencipkan kosmos
@INFO DI MUS & MAJALAH POP BLM LENGKAP [17jul14K 20ram1435H lab mikropal]
#Popular magazine & museum displays tend to arrange information neat [rapih] packages [bungkus, paket]. Sophisticated illustrations present the viewer w/ a concise [ringkas, singkat] graphic summary of millions of years of human or primate evolution. Yet these sharply [tajam] drawn [yg blm diputuskan] illustrations & explanations belie [memungkiri] the tenuous [lemah] nature of many interpretations of the age, envi & relationship among different fossil species [deCorse 2000:78]
@DI FAYUM MESIR DITEMUKAN NENEK MOYANG APES [17jul14K 20ram1435H lab mikropal]
~~Fayum depression, located 100miles southwest of Cairo, Egypt, along the northwestern margin of the Sahara desert ~~ the most exciting discoveries of early primate fossils, gaining [mendptkan] insights into the ancient envi of the region & piecing [mengumpulkan] together pictures of extinct primates that ancestral [ks= keturunan] to modern monkeys, apes & humans [deCorse 2000:78]
@MASALAH NENEK MOYANG PRIMATES [17jul14K 20ram1435H lab mikropal]
Paleontologist confront an apparent [nyata] contradiction in tracing the roots of modern primates: the living cattarrhines thrive [berkembang] in the tropical forest of Africa & SE.Asia, yet fossil specimens come primarily from desert regions like the Fayum. This disparity [perbedaan, keadaan tdk seimbang] stems from the incomplete nature [sifat watak] of the fossil record [deCorse 2000:78]
@BEDA STRATA DI GURUN & DI DAERAH TROPIS [17jul14K 20ram1435H lab mikropal]
Fossil strata are not exposed in tropical forest regions & the lush [rimbun, subur] vegetation makes the indentification of sites difficult. In contrast, the Jebel Qatrani Formation at the Fayum constitutes a geological “layer cake”, hundreds of feet thick, that spans the Eocene & Oligocene epochs (Fig 4.3) [deCorse 2000:78]
DATING METHODS [24-8-14M vbm]
Berapa umur fosil ini? Ini pertanyaan yg sederhana tetapi susah unt dijawab… krn hal ini (umur) adl s/ yg sangat fundamental atau mendasar jika kita mempelajari masa-masa yg telah lalu. Tanpa mengetahui “waktu/umur” maka kita tdk bisa mengetahui bgm proses evolusi itu terjadi, bgm perkembangan budaya dari waktu ke waktu [p.30]