Garrison, 2003

*Until very recently archaeological geology had at its core the
methods of geomorphology and sedimentology (Garrison, 2003:7)

2.2 Geomorphological Mapping
In Native American mythology the landscape is often characterized as
either indifferent [acuh tak acuh] or even antagonistic [yg berlawanan] to humanity. Descriptions of the ancient landscape by
these and other cultures, Australian, for instance, ascribe it as
resulting from the action of powerful forces often in zoomorphic form~~ (Garrison, 2003:7)
*The topography of a given landscape is the result of climate-driven
processes oft-times [seringkali] directly coupled to tectonic activity (Garrison, 2003:8)

2.3 Geomorphic Concepts
*Keller and Pinter (2002) review the basic principles used in the
study of geomorphic landscapes. The most basic principle, in terms of modern, processoriented geomorphology, is that any change in a
landscape implies a change in process (Garrison, 2003:8)
*One of the oldest models for landscape evolution is that of William
Morris Davis who articulated the “Cycle of Erosion” (1899). In this
model, brief periods of uplift are followed by much longer periods of inactivity and erosion. In Davis’ view the landscape had a “life
cycle” from (1) youth through (2) maturity to (3) old age (Davis 1899) (Garrison, 2003:9)
*The landforms that we propose to study and map are the result of
three factors: (1) geomorphic processes; (2) stage of evolution of
landform and (3) geologic structure. To map archaeologically
interesting topography one must (1) identify the geologic processes by which the landform were shaped; (2) recognize the stages of
development of landform and their evolution through time and (3)
recognize the topographic expression of geologic structures – dip,
strike, clinal variation, etc. In geoarchaeology, the consideration of topography must include another factor – human-induced geomorphic
change (Garrison, 2003:10)

2.4 Geomorphic Setting
*A brief review of geomorphic settings reminds us that there are
basically only: fluvial, desert/arid, coastal, glacial, volcanic and
karst/caves (Garrison, 2003:10)
*Human groups have always gravitated [condong, cenderung] to available water and this is readily apparent in any study of agrarian cultures (Garrison, 2003:10)
*Crops need reliable water supplies and these are most often found
in drainage systems. Besides available water there are rich, deep
alluvial soils which ancient farmers were quick to identify and
exploit. Geomorphic settings are the result of geomorphic processes -fluvial, aeolian, volcanic and glacial processes which in turn are
special cases of the two primary processes: erosion and deposition. In this volume we are concerned primarily with the identification of the results of geomorphic processes rather than the processes themselves. The study of the latter is that of surficial process geology. In this chapter we recapitulate [mengikhtisarkan, menimpulkan] the importance of these landforms to archaeology and their attributes (Garrison, 2003:10)

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