The geological concept of mountains in the Qur’an

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Introduction

The reference to mountains in the Qur’an
Frequency of verses

#The word mountain in both the singular & plural forms is explicitly
mentioned in the Qur’an 39 times (6 in the singular & 33 in the
plural), & is clearly implied [mengartikan, suggest] as stabilizers
for the Earth’s crust in 10 other verses. These 49 Qur’anic references can be classified in 9 distinctive categories as follows:
1) Verses that refer to a highly elevated landform (2:260 & 11:43)



2) Verses that metaphorically emphasize the greatness of the mountain mass, of its elevation or of its massive, solid nature (13:31; 14:46; 17:37; 19:90; 33:72 & 59:21)













3) Verses that only mention the word mountain (or mountains) in the
context of a similitude [kemiripan, kiasan] (11:42 & 24:43)





4) Verses that refer to mountains of historic importance such as those where the Thamud people lived (7:74; 15:82 & 26:149)



5) Verses that refer to mountains which were the scenes of performed miracles [mukzizat, keajaiban] such as the mountains of prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) (PBUH) or those of prophet Musa (Moses) (PBUH) (2:260 & 7:143, 171)



6) Verses that mention some of the uses of mountain by both human beings & animals as shelters (16:68, 81), & as sources for running water (13:3; 16:15; 27:61 & 77:27)



7) Qur’anic verses that clearly describe mountains as pickets tiang pancang runcing (or pegs pasak, sumbat) that hold the Earth’s surface down as a means of fixation [the action of making something firm or stable] (78:7) & others that emphasize their role as stabilizers for the Earth’s crust (13:3; 15:9; 16:15; 21:31; 27:61; 31:10; 41:10; 50:7; 77:27 & 79:32) or point to be miraculous [menakjubkan, ajaib] system by which mountains are set up [mendirikan, build] (88:19)

Qur’anic verses with basic geologic concepts of mountains
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