GEOL & SOIL

[25-10-15M vbm insya Allah nm bsk berangkat ke jepun]
1]Florinsky, Igor.V.2012. Digital terrain analysis in soil science & geology.Academic Press

Preface
The book is divided into three parts:
*Part I represents the main concepts,principles & methods of digital terrain modeling
*Part II discusses various aspects of the use of digital terrain analysis in soil science
*Part III looks at applications of digital terrain modeling in
geology

Chapter 1 presents a brief historical overview of the progress of geomorphometry & digital terrain analysis in the context of soil & geological studies. It is demonstrated that there are four main research trends in soil- & geology-oriented digital terrain modeling: (1) analysis & modeling of relationships between soil properties & topographic characteristics
(2) use of the resulting data & knowledge in predictive mapping of soil properties
(3) analysis of forms of geological features, such as folds & domes
(4) revelation & analysis of lineaments & faults, as well as their relationships with other components of geosystems
_______________________________________________________
[25-10-15M vbm] CH-1: Digital Terrain Modeling: a brief historical overview

p.1
#TOPO ADL SALAH SATU FAKTOR YG MEMPENGARUHI PROSES PEMBNTKAN TNH
Topography is one of the main factors controlling processes taking
place in the near-surface layer of the planet (Huggett and Cheesman,
2002). In particular, topography is one of the soil-forming factors
(Dokuchaev, 1883; Zakharov, 1913; Neustruev, 1927; Jenny, 1941;
Huggett, 1975; Fridland, 1976; Gerrard, 1981; Schaetzl and Anderson,
2005)

#KNP? sebab topo mempengaruhi:
(1)climatic & meteorological characteristics, which controls hydrological & thermal regimes of soils (Geiger, 1927;Romanova, 1977; Kondratyev et al., 1978; Raupach & Finnigan, 1997;Bo¨hner & Antoni´c, 2009)
(2)prerequisites for gravity-driven overland & intrasoil lateral transport of water and other substances (Kirkby and Chorley, 1967; Young, 1972; Speight, 1980)
(3)spatial distribution of vegetation cover (Yaroshenko, 1961; Franklin, 1995).

#ALASAN PERLUX ANALI TOPO
At the same time, being a result of the interaction of endogenous & exogenous processes of different scales, topography can reflect the geological structure of a terrain (Penck, 1924; Gerasimov, 1959; Meshcheryakov, 1965; Ollier, 1981; Ufimtsev, 1988; Burbank & Anderson, 2001; Scheidegger,2004; Lopatin, 2008; Brocklehurst, 2010). In this connection, qualitative & quantitative topographic information is widely used in the geosciences.

p.1-2
#APLIKASI/ANALI TOPO TH 1990an
Before the 1990s, topographic maps were the main source of quantitative information on topography. They were analyzed using geomorphometric techniques to calculate manually morphometric variables (e.g.,slope gradient, drainage density, horizontal curvature, etc.) & produce morphometric maps (Vakhtin, 1930; Weinberg, 1934a; Chentsov, 1940; Horton, 1945; Volkov, 1950; Strahler, 1957; Clarke, 1966; Devdariani, 1967)
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
16-1-16St vbm
TANAH
#Sejalan dg waktu bagaimanapun kerasnya suatu batuan akan mengalami pelapukan. Analoginya seorang manusia, sejalan dg waktu, akan menjadi tua & akhirnya wafat. Pelapukan dlm batuan bisa mengalami dua proses yaitu (1) pelapukan kimia & (2) pelapukan fisika. Hasil dr pelapukan tsb adalah terbentuknya tanah. Jadi tanah adl hsl dari pelapukan (kimia & fisika) suatu batuan.

#Jika kita melihat suatu penampang tanah maka kita bisa membagi penampang tanah itu menjadi beberapa horison yg kita kenal sbg horison tanah