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Gates 2011

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The geological concept of mountains in the Qur’an

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The reference to mountains in the Qur’an
Frequency of verses

#The word mountain in both the singular & plural forms is explicitly
mentioned in the Qur’an 39 times (6 in the singular & 33 in the
plural), & is clearly implied [mengartikan, suggest] as stabilizers
for the Earth’s crust in 10 other verses. These 49 Qur’anic references can be classified in 9 distinctive categories as follows:
1) Verses that refer to a highly elevated landform (2:260 & 11:43)
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Ch I Orangutan Benoît Goossens dkk

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Taxonomy, geographic variation & population genetics of Bornean & Sumatran orangutans

1.1 Introduction
#The orangutan was first described in the early seventeenth century by two Dutch physicians, Jacob de Bondt and Nicholaas Tulp, and then assigned a taxonomic name, Simia satyrus, by Carl von Linné,
a name which was subsequently changed to Pongo pygmaeus in 1927 by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (for more details, see Rijksen and Meijaard 1999)
#Despite a wide Pleistocene distribution in South East Asia and
mainland Asia, including areas between Vietnam,northern India and southern China (Hooijer 1948; Kahlke 1972; von Koenigswald 1982; Tougard and Ducrocq 1999; Bacon and Long 2001), wild orangutan
populations are today found only in Northern Sumatra and Borneo. These two islands are isolated from each other by the South China Sea, an isolation that has been effective for at least 8000 years
(Harrison et al. 2006). Sub-fossil orangutans are limited but G nds dated at 30,000–40,000 before the present (BP) have been discovered in both Sumatra and Borneo (Smith and Pilbeam 1980)

Environmental geomorphology

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1.1 Definition of Geomorphology
#Geomorphology, from the Greek words yfj jiopcpfi X6joq, is a science which aims to study and interpret landforms and especially the causes that create and modify them
#Geomorphology’s main area of study is the contact surface between the lithosphere, on the one hand, and the atmosphere and/or the hydrosphere, on the other hand, that is, the interface between two different physical entities: a solid medium and a liquid and/or aeriform one. It is along this surface that geomorphological processes take place
#Two types of forces are exerted along this interface: endogenetic and exogenetic. The former (internal) originate in the substance of which the Earth is made and produce changes in the lithosphere. They are diastrophic phenomena giving rise to crustal deformation, volcanic activity and the slow transfer of the inner heat of the earth to the surface. Exogenetic (external) forces originate in the solar system and modify the surface of the lithosphere. They are principally the force of gravity and solar energy, which determine vectorial movements, convection and tangential movements of portions of solid, liquid or aeriform masses on the above-mentioned interface


Anthropogenic geomorphology

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Abstract Today the human agent is equal in importance to other geomorphic factors. Although the energy released by human society is insignificant compared to the endogenic forces of the Earth (tectonic movements, volcanic activity,earthquakes), human impact is not only commeasurable [sepadan, seimbang] to the influence of exogenic processes but even surpasses [exceed, melampaui] their efficiency. Exponential population increase involved higher demands and the energy made available to meet the demands resulted in large-scale reworking of surface materials – at an even more rapidly growing rate, a process which is likely to be continued in the future. The subject of anthropogenic geomorphology is the description of the wide and ever-widening range of surface landforms, extremely diverse in origin and in purpose, created by the operation of human society. In a broader sense, artificially created landforms have manifold [ber-macam2] influences on the environment (e.g. alterations in meso- and microclimate, biota, etc.) and modify natural processes.

Keywords Anthropogenic geomorphology · Subject · System · Classification

Physical geography & the environment

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Part IV Geomorphology and hydrology 183

8 Hillslopes and landform evolution 215 Mike Kirkby
8.1 Introduction 215
#Over 90% of landscapes that are currently not glaciated consist of hillslopes [leeng bukit], and the remainder consist of river channels and their floodplains

8.2 Slope profiles 216
#The appearance of hillslopes around the world varies considerably
(Allen, 1997). Some of these differences are related to the vegetation and soils on the hillslopes, but there are also important differences in the form of hillslope profiles. Most profiles are convex near the divide (top of the slope) and concave near their base ( Figure 8.1 ). The most significant differences between them are in their total length, gradient and convexity.