Brothwell 1963

Estimating sex
# Before discussing specific features used in determining type sex of an individual, a number of general points must be emphasized. First it must be appreciated that the value of certain features varies with the group being studied [yg sdg dipelajari]. Thus, the degree of supraorbital development which serves in Europeans to identify males, may be found in a number of females among Australian aborigines (Brothwell 1963:51)

# Secondly, it must be remembered that both as regards measurements and general shape, there is often considerable overlap in the range which is found in the two sexes. Yet another complicating factor is the frequent incompleteness of skeletal remains, with the result that sex may have to be determined provisionally on only one or two features (Brothwell 1963:51)
# Ideally, it is necessary to have a large series of fairly complete skeletons of one particular ethic group (Brothwell 1963:51)

# Keen (1950 in Brothwell 1963:51) has recently discussed sex differences of the skull in some detail. In general the male skull may be distinguished from the female by the following characteristics [Fig22]
1] It is generally larger & heavier
2] Muscular ridges, such as the temporal lines and nuchal crests are larger
3] The supraorbital ridges are more prominent and the frontal sinuses larger
4] The external occipital protuberance and mastoid processes are more developed
5] The upper margin of the orbit is more rounded
6] The palate is larger
7] The teeth are often larger
8] The posterior rooth of the zygomatic process extends for some distance past [melewati] the external auditory meatus [EAM] as well-defined ridge
9] The mandible is more robust with more developed and flaring gonial regions
10] The ramus of the mandible is broader with a better-developed coronoid process
11] Lastly, it may be noted that the male skull is less rounded, the female skull tending to retain more the adoloscent form

[18jul12R lab mikropal]
# There is no doubt that this bone yields the most reliable sexing information of all and it is probable that between 90% and 95% accuracy in determination can be achieved (Krogman 1946; Wasburn 1948; Genoves 1959 in Brothwell 1963:54)
# The morphological points to note are as follows:
1] As a whole, the male pelvis is more robust with well marked muscular impressions
2] The depth of the pubic symphysis is generally greater in the male
3] The acetabulum is larger in the male
4] The obturator foramen is larger in the male and rather oval in outline, whereas in the female it is smaller and more triangular in shape
5] The sciatic notch is narrower and deeper in the male (Fig22). Although in all groups, this is an excellent diagnostic feature, variations in the general shape of the notch do occutr. Genoves (1959 in Brothwell 1963:55), for example, found that its general shape in Anglo-Saxons was quite different from that in British mediaeval individuals of the same sex.
6] The pre-auricular sulcus (Fig22) is more constantly present in the female ilium, although sometimes poorly developed or present on one side only

[1 sd 4: OF MINOR VALUE; 5 sd 6: OF GREAT VALUE]

# Differences between some parts of the male and female pelvis have also been described in metrical terms ~~ (Brothwell 1963:55)
1] A sub-pubic angle of 90° or over usually indicates the female sex
2] The ischio-pubic index (calculated from ischial and pubic lengths as defined by Schultz 1930) is lower in the male. This index was devised to replace the sub-pubic angle
3] The angle of the sciatic notch (estimated on a shadow tracing) is much smaller in the male


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