Larsen 1997

[13jul12J VBM]
# FUNGSI FISIK FEMALE & MALE PD PERIODA AGRI
^^ Bridges (1991b in Larsen 1997:213) suggests that the increase in bone strength in female femora and humeri reflects a relatively greater range of activity changes in them than in males. Thus, as suggested by the osteoarthritis analysis, the shift to food production may have had a relatively greater impact on woman in this setting

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[19jul12K lab mikropal]
#ARTI DENTAL CARIES
^^ Contrary to that which is often presented by anthropologists, the term “dental caries” does not refer to lesions in teeth resulting from the invasion of microorganisms. Rather. dental caries is a disease process characterized by the focal [berkenaan dg] demineralization of dental hard tissues by organic acids produced by bacterial fermentation of dietary carbohydrates, especially sugars (Larsen 1997:65)

# PENYEBAB DENTAL CARIES
^^ The etiology of dental caries is incompletely understood, but several essential and modifying factors are involved. The former included: (a) the exposure of teeth surfaces to the oral environment; (b) the presence of aggregates of complex indigenous oral bacterial flora [eg. Streptococus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus], salivary glycoproteins and inorganic salts adhering to the tooth surfaces (called dental plaque); and (c) diet (Rowe 1982 in Larsen 1997:65)
^^ Modifying factors are those that influence the site distribution and rate of carious lesion development; these include, but are not limited to, crown size and morphology, enamel defects, occlusal surface attrition, food texture, oral and plaque pH, speed of food consumption, some systemic disease, age, child abuse (penyalahgunaan), heredity, salivary composition and flow, nutrition, periodontal disease, enamel elemental composition and presence of fluoride and other geochemical factors (Bowen 1994; Burt and Ismail 1986 ~~ in Larsen 1997:65)

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[28jul12St 9ram1433H]
# PERTUMBUHAN ENAMEL RENTAN THD ASUPAN MAKANAN & ATAU ADAX PENYAKIT
^^ Tooth enamel is esp sensitive [peka] to metabolic insults [memperhina] arising from nutritional deficiencies or disease, or both (Larsen 1997:44)

# ADAX GANGGUAN THD (PERTUMBUHAN) ENAMEL ADL SUMBER INFO UNT MEREKONSTRUKSI LINGKUNGAN
^^ Because enamel does not remodel & it preserves better than any other hard tissue developmental disturbances provide an excellent source of information towards reconstructing a retrospective [yg berhub dg waktu yl] stress [tegangan, tekanan] & morbidity [sifat mudh kena sakit] history of human populations, past or present (Larsen 1997:44)

# ADAX VARIASI UKURAN GIGI MNS PREHISTORI DIHUBUNGKAN DG CARA ADAPTASI & PROSES EVOLUSI
^^ The adaptational & evolutionary significance of past tooth size variation in human populations has become a major point of discussion, as is indicated by an increase in research on the topic from archaeological settings in the Old World (e.g., Brace & Hinton 1981 ~~) (Larsen 1997:245)
^^ (11sept12Sl rsud cicalengka 11th WTC) Pola/morfo g2 dr mns2 dari tiap2 benua telah banyak diteiliti org. Kegunaan dr penelitian tsb adl unt merekonstruksi asal-usul dari mns2 tsb (13:287)
^^ (11sept12Sl rsud cicalengka 11th WTC) penel thd ukuran g2 (odontometric) thd mns2 dr tiap benua jg telah banyak dilakukan org yg mana gunax unt melihat pola evol yg terjd & melihat variasi ukuiran g2. Berdasarkan hsl penel odontometric tsb ukuran g2 mns dibagi 3 yi: macrodontic, mesodontic & microdontic (Harris & Rathbun dlm 13:287,291). Variasi morfo dr mns2 antar benua (region?) ternyata lebih besar dp variasi genetik
^^ (11sept12Sl rsud cicalengka 11th WTC) It was asserted [menyatakan, menegaskan] for several decades that tooth size has been exposed to natural selective forces beginning in the UP (mulai munculnya WK) (Frayer 1978 ~ dlm 13:292)
^^ (11sept12Sl rsud cicalengka 11th WTC) strong natural selection= ukuran g2 besar= probable mutation
^^ (11sept12Sl rsud cicalengka 11th WTC) kecepatan pengecilan ukuran g2 terdpt dikawasan western part & eastern edge of the Eurasian continent ie European & the Jomon/Ainu of Japan (13:292)

# SDH BANYAK PENELITIAN TTG TERJDX PENGECILAN UKURAN GIGI DLM EVOLUSI MANUSIA & PENYEBABX MSH MISTERI
^^ The trend for a reduction in tooth size over the course of hominid evolution has been well documented (e.g., Bermúdez de Castro & Nicolas ~~) (Larsen 1997:245)
^^ However, mechanisms for tooth size reduction remain elusive [sukar dipahami] ~~ (Larsen 1997:245)

# BBRP PENDAPAT TTG SEBAB TERJDX PENGECILAN UKURAN G2
^^ Evolusi: tooth size appears to be highly heritable, suggesting that size reduction may be largly an evolutionary (genetic) change (Larsen 1997:245)
^^ Lingkungan: the rapid reduction in tooth size accompanying shifts in dietary focus (e.g., Hinton et.al. 1980 ~~) or the presence of small teeth in physiologically stressed individuals (e.g., Townsend & Brown 1978 ~~) indicate a significant influence of environment (e.g., nutrition, maternal health), at least in certain situations (Larsen 1997:245)

# ADAX POLA UKURAN G2 MNS HG > MNS PETANI & CIRI MSY PETANI
^^ Generally, foragers or groups having recently made the shift to agriculture have larger teeth than populations with a longer history of agricultural use & associated food preparation techniques, such as boiling in ceramic vessels and other forms of extended cooking (e.g., Lucaks 1985 ~~) (Larsen 1997:245)

# KEGUNAAN ANALISA DW
^^ Tooth wear varies widely between human populations. Owing to localized behavioral characteristics & differences in cultural practice, age, sex, diet & orofacial morphology, it provides enormously [secara sangat besar]important information on earlier foodways & masticatory behavior (e.g., Molnar 1971, 1972 ~~) (Larsen 1997:247)
^^ The significance of DW in relation to diet was succinctly [dg ringkas, briefly] summarized by Walker ~~ since it offers an independent check against reconstruction of prehistoric subsistence based on the analysis of floral, faunal & artifactual evidence (1978:101)(Larsen 1997:247-248)

# 2 TIPE DW
^^ Two forms of wear, abrasion & attrition are most commonly discussed (Townsend et.al. 1994)(Larsen 1997:247)
^^ Abrasion: is caused by contact between the tooth & the food or other solid exogenous materials, esp as food is forced over occlusal surfaces (Larsen 1997:247)
^^ Attrition: is caused by tooth-on-tooth contact in the absence of food or various other abrasives. Aditionally, erosion –the loss of tooth surface due to chemical dissolution- is sometimes considered as a form of wear (e.g., Linkosalo & Markkanen 1985 ~~) (Larsen 1997:247)

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[30jul12Sn 10ram1433H]
# DW BER-BEDA2 UNT PD SETIAP POPULASI
^ Tooth wear varies widely between human populations (Larsen 1997:247)

# PERBEDAAN DW & FAKTOR PENYEBABX
^^ Owing to localized behavioral characteristics & differences in cultural practices, age, sex, diet & orofacial morphology, it provides enormously important information or earlier foodways & masticatory (Larsen 1997:247)

# TK KEAUSAN G2 DITENTUKAN OLEH~
^^ The severity of wear is highly influenced by the consistency [stiffness] & texture [composition] of food, which is determined by either the characteristics of food (e.g., presence of phytolith or cellulose in plants), the manner of its preparation or some combination (Larsen 1997:248)

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[31jul12Sl 11ram1433H ultah fn]
# PERBEDAAN DW MESO & NEO
^^ In previously mentioned Portuguese populations, molar occl surfaces also show a temporal change from flat to cupped wear as one moves from the Meso to Neo sites (Lubell et.al. 1994 in Larsen 1997:256). This study also serves to illustrate the potential variation of wear patterns in human populations as wear angles in Meso HG are much greater than in human later Neo agri. The reason for the differences from Smith’s findings are largely unknown (Larsen 1997:256)

# PERBEDAAN DW ANT & POST TEETH PD HG & AGRI
^^ The form of wear on the ant teeth is distinctive [khusus]: prehistoric foragers show a characteristic rounded wear, whereas the agriculturalists (including Libben) have cupped [berbnt cangkir] wear (Larsen 1997:256)

The consistency of these finding confirms the overall conclusion drawn by Smith (1984) that tooth wear is mediated [bertindak sbg perantara] by masticatory behaviours (Larsen 1997:256)

The relatively heavier use of the ant teeth in HG is in line with ethnographic reports of tooth use in Australians & Eskimos, in both dietary & non dietary functions. The distinctive labially oriented rounded wear in HG dentitions is probably a function of the use of incisors & canines in various extramasticatory activities (e.g., hide preparation & see below) (Larsen 1997:257)

The distinctive cupping wear on agri incisors & canines appears to be especially prominent in individuals who have lost post teeth prior to death. This ant wear pattern may represent an alteration of tooth use arising from the loss of post teeth, namely from use of the incisors & canines for a combination of food preparation & mastication (Larsen 1997:257)

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