*Geomorphic evolution at its simplest means the mode of change of landform or geomorphic system over time [p420]
*Model of geomorphic evolution: geographical cycle (Davis, 1899), Penckian morphological analysis (Penck 1924), the semi-arid erosion cycle (King 1962) and climatogenetic geomorphology (Büdel 1977) [p420]
Definition and scope
*Geomorphology is the area of study leading to an understanding of and appreciation for landforms and landscapes, including those on continents and islands, those beneath oceans, lakes, rivers, glaciers
and other water bodies, as well as those on the terrestrial planets and moons of our Solar System [p428] => geomorf adl studi bentang alam (landform)
*Geomorphology is an empirical science that attempts to formulate answers to the following fundamental questions. What makes onelandform distinct from another? How are different landforms associated? How did a particular landform or complex landscape evolve? How might it evolve in the future? What are the ramifications [akibat] for humans and human society? [p429]
*Modern geomorphology is currently subdivided and practised along the lines of specialized domains. Fluvial geomorphology ~~hillslope geomorphologists ~~karst geomorphologists ~~soils geomorphology, biogeomorphology (zoogeomorphology), climatic geomorphology, tropical geomorphology, desert geomorphology, mountaingeomorphology, extraterrestrial (planetary) geomorphology, remote-sensing geomorphology, experimental geomorphology, environmental geomorphology, forest geomorphology, applied geomorphology, engineering geomorphology and anthropogeomorphology [p429]
Major themes and concepts
*Landforms are dynamic entities [wujud] that evolve through time as a consequence of characteristic suites of processes acting upon Earth-surface materials. Geomorphologists are concerned with
documenting and unravelling [terurai, menyelesaikan kekusutan] the mysteries of this process-form interaction [p429]
*To better understand these complex interrelationships, geomorphologists have proposed various conceptual themes or templates [contoh] to aid in organizing their thinking. Among these are: [p429-30]
1)Endogenic–exogenic forces Geomorphic systems are governed by dynamic controls that may be internally produced (endogenic) or externally imposed (exogenic) upon the system. Tectonic, volcanic and isostatic activities are manifestations of endogenic forces within Earth, whereas rainfall and meteorite showers are exogenic forces. The spatial and temporal scales of the geomorphic system influence the types of endogenic–exogenic forces that are relevant. The control –volume,force–balance approach in fluid mechanics is an analogue to this concept.
2)Destructive–constructive action Some geomorphic processes create landforms (e.g. volcanic cones, meteorite impact craters, termite
mounds) whereas other processes (e.g. chemical weathering, rainwash, human activity) destroy landforms or cause widespread denudation. More typically, most geomorphic processes both create and destroy landforms simultaneously. For example, flowing water in a river will erode the outer bank of a meander bend while depositing sediment on the inner bank in the form of a point bar. Similarly, a glacier can erode, excavate and sculpt the surface upon which it moves while also depositing sediment in the form of eskers and moraines.